*Pleasure associated enzyme activity starts by using alcohol. It activates more and more as alcohol use continues. This enzyme system is stored in our cellular memory and is never lost. This creates a physical brain chemical dependency.
*Natural sources of pleasure are gradually marginalized and alcohol becomes an important (if not the most important) pleasure giver. Drinking becomes a habit, and is also stored in the central memory. This creates a psychological dependence and consumption of alcohol spins out of control in general and is a more serious obstacle.
*Dependence factors, both physical and psychological, will never disappear from the body and the further treatment goal should be full sobriety.
*Source: North American Science, June 1997
South African Brain Research Institute
The following information is reprinted with permission from Nova Science Publishers, Inc. from the book: Nitrous Oxide and Neurotransmission, Pain Management Research and Technology , Chapter 9, pages 232, 234, 255, & 256. The book is written by Mark A. Gillman, (South African Brain Research Institute, Johannesburg, South Africa), Copyright © 2012: ISBN 978-1-61470-106-4.
As a lipid-soluble molecule, nitrous oxide enters the brain rapidly to alter the flow of information along a multitude of neuronal pathways and synapses by interfering with membrane ion channels and the action of key neurotransmitters. Nitrous oxide belongs to a sizable group of messenger molecules with signaling properties unlike any of the known non-gaseous chemical neurotransmitters. The book discusses how research with nitrous oxide uncovered the new principle of gasotransmission. This book examines nitrous oxide and its effects on the various neurotransmitter systems and ion channels of the brain. This book also discusses how these effects could give rise to all the documented clinical actions of this relatively simple gas, including the most recently discovered application: the treatment of substance abuse withdrawal states. The book makes the important distinction between the neurotransmitter and clinical actions of nitrous oxide at low psychotropic analgesic concentrations and those associated with the much higher anaesthetic concentrations (Imprint: Nova).
The PAN therapy was first used in South Africa in 1979 despite considerable opposition from Academics and others, was accepted as a standard therapy for substance abuse withdrawal states by the South African Medical Association and the Health Professionals Council of South Africa in 1987.
Apart from its well known analgesic and anesthetic actions, PAN also produces emotional changes. These emotional actions include mood elevation, anti-stress, and anti-craving effects [Gillman and Lichtigfeld, 1994a].
….the very rapid ability of PAN to reverse the symptoms of the alcohol withdrawal state could be partly due to restoring the homeostatic balance between the various neurotransmitter systems that had been functionally disrupted “because of alcohol/substance overuse” [Lichtigfeld and Gillman, 1994].
PAN, acting as an opioid agonist, tends to stimulate the underactive systems and simultaneously inhibits the overactive systems to rapidly restore homeostasis [Gillman and Lichtigfeld, 1983a].
….there was evidence showing that inhibition of dopamine release occurred in withdrawal states. Major therapeutic effects of PAN were due to its ability to modulate the dopamine system, thereby correcting the severe deficit of dopamine release found during withdrawal states. The improvement has been achieved without any transfer of addiction to PAN in any of the treated patients to-date [Lichtigfeld and Gillman, 1996].
There is a central deficiency in activity of the endogenous opioid system in withdrawal states, which is ameliorated by the administration of PAN, which stimulates the opioid system [Lichtigfeld and Gillman, 1982].
PAN is extremely safe. Clinical experience has shown that PAN is an agent with an impeccable safety record that has withstood the test of time [Clark and Brunick, 2003, 2008].
An added safety feature when using PAN for withdrawal is that those patients who do not respond positively to oxygen or PAN can be placed on a sedative regimen within no more than 40 minutes from the beginning of gas administration [Gillman and Lichtigfeld, 1990, 2002, 2004, 2006].